Six Types of Training and Development Strategies
1.On-the-job Training and Lectures
The two most frequently used kinds of training are on-the-job training and lectures, though little research exists as to the effectiveness of either. It's often impossible to show someone everything she needs to know at a location away from the workplace. Thus on-the-job training usually supplements other kinds of training, e.g., classroom or off-site training; but on-the-job training is ceaselessly the only form of training. It is normally informal, which means, sadly, that the trainer doesn't concentrate on the training as a lot as she ought to, and the trainer could not have a well-articulated image of what the novice must learn.
On-the-job training shouldn't be profitable when used to keep away from developing a training program, although it might be an efficient part of a well-coordinated training program.
Lectures are used because of their low value and their capacity to succeed in many people. Lectures, which use one-way communication as opposed to interactive learning methods, are a lot criticized as a training device.
2. Programmed Instruction (PI)
These gadgets systematically current information to the learner and elicit a response; they use reinforcement rules to promote appropriate responses. When PI was initially developed in the 1950s, it was regarded as helpful only for basic subjects. At present the method is used for skills as diverse as air site visitors control, blueprint reading, and the evaluation of tax returns.
3. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
With CAI, students can study at their own tempo, as with PI. Because the student interacts with the computer, it is believed by many to be a more dynamic learning device. Academic alternatives may be quickly selected to suit the student's capabilities, and performance can be monitored continuously. As instruction proceeds, data are gathered for monitoring and improving performance.
4. Audiovisual Methods
Both television and film lengthen the range of skills that can be taught and the way info could also be presented. Many systems have digital blackboards and slide projection equipment. The usage of techniques that mix audiovisual systems such as closed circuit television and telephones has spawned a new term for this type of training, teletraining. The characteristic on " Sesame Street " illustrates the design and analysis of certainly one of television's favorite children's program as a training device.
Training simulations replicate the essential characteristics of the real world which are essential to produce each learning and the transfer of new knowledge and skills to application settings. Both machine and different forms of simulators exist. Machine simulators usually have substantial degrees of. physical fidelity; that is, they characterize the real world's operational equipment. The principle goal of simulation, however, is to produce psychological fidelity, that is, to reproduce within the training those processes that can be required on the job. We simulate for a number of reasons, including to manage the training setting, for safety, to introduce feedback and other learning rules, and to reduce cost.
6. Business games
They are the direct progeny of war games that have been used to train officers in fight methods for hundreds of years. Almost all early business games had been designed to show basic business skills, but more latest games also embody interpersonal skills. Monopoly might be considered the quintessential business game for young capitalists. It is probably the first place children discovered the words mortgage, taxes, and go to jail.
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